Understanding how a tooth cavity works requires a basic knowledge of the anatomy of the tooth. The teeth are generally composed of multiple layers. This includes the outermost layer, which is known as the enamel. Enamel is a durable and mineralized substance in the body.
Located under the gum line, a substance known as cementum covers the tooth roots. The dentin is as durable as the bone and protects the nerve endings. The dentin holds the dental pulp, which is a vascular tissue constructed of capillaries, large blood vessels, connective tissue, nerve fibers, and cells such as odontoblasts, macrophages, fibroblasts, and lymphocytes.
The pulp is required to help nourish the tooth as it develops. After the tooth becomes fully mature, the pulp will indicate whether it is damaged or infected through pain.